Also spelled PUKHTOON or PASHTOON, Hindustani PATHAN, Persian AFGHAN, Pashtu-speaking people of
About the origins of the Pakhtoon, most scholars believe it more likely that they arose from an intermingling of ancient Aryans from the north or west with subsequent invaders. Several Pakhtun clans are known to have moved from
The Pakhtoon are farmers, herdsmen, and warriors. Most are sedentary farmers, combining cultivation with animal husbandry; some are migratory herdsmen and caravaners. Large numbers of them have always been attracted to military service.
There are estimated to be about 12,500,000(est. 1982) Pashtun in
The settled areas include lowland tribes subject to direct administration by the provincial government. The main clans there are, from south to north: the Banuchi, Marwat and Khatak from the
Pukhtuns, although being a minority, are the largest ethnic group in
Pukhtuns are the second largest ethnic group after the Punjabis in
The following delineates the population of Pukhtun in the provinces of
In ethnic terms, substantial ethnic communities reside in Attock district and Mianwali. Other communities include large numbers of Muhammadzais in Kasur, and other larger communities have settled around
In addition to this, a large portion of the Urdu Speaking community in
Shabbir Hasan Khan Josh, an Urdu-speaking poet of Pukhtun origin from Malihabad (UP,
Major Indian Pukhtun tribes lived in the following areas. While, many persons belonging to these tribles moved to the Afghan-Pakistan border, others chose to stay and thus, descendants of these tribes still reside in the parts of
It must be remembered that the term "Pathan" does not refer exclusively and specifically to these Indian Pukhtun descendants. Historically the term was used to refer to Pukhtuns in general by mainstream Indians, Muslims included. Most Pukhtuns, however, find the term to be insensitive and prefer to be called by their native label.
Many Pukhtuns worked in the Indian independence movement. While many supported the Muslim League's demand for
Today around 11,904,000 Urdu-speaking people who claim Pukhtun descent reside in post-partition
following are the some famous Indian Pukhtuns
Also included among the Pukhtuns in
A significant population of Pukthuns serving as migrant workers is found in the
A large number of Pukhtuns have migrated from their homeland,
Since the late 1970s and onwards, Pukhtuns began immigrating to the
Pukhtuns have been present in
Large numbers of Afghans were recruited in the 19th century during the initial British development of
There is a small number of Pukhtuns in some of the South American countries, in
'Buz' means Goat and 'Kashi' means dragging or pulling in Pashto Language.The sport dates back to Genghis Khan’s reign and continues with very little alteration today. The basic objective is to carry the headless carcass of a calf or goat around a flag and back to the starting point while on horseback with other riders trying to do the same thing by taking the carcass away from you. It’s not a team sport, it’s every man for himself and that becomes apparent as soon as the game starts. It is played on a large open dusty field which does not appear to have many boundaries. The game is a microcosm of power politics in
Among the dozens of different folk dances known as Atanrh, some are as follows.
In this dance, the dancers perform to the beat of the musician. This dance typically performed by men & women. It involves 2-5 steps, ending with a clap given while facing the center, after which the process is repeated again. The hip and arms are put in a sequential movement including left and right tilts, with the wrists twisting in sequence, with ultimately a hand is projected outward and brought in a 'scoop-like' fashion towards the center where the other hand meets it for a clap. This dance is typically performed with the musician dictating the duration and speed.
Khattak Dance is a martial dance by the Khattak tribe of Pukhtoon. The fast tempo with which the Khattak dance starts and ends distinguishes it from all the other Pakhtun folk dances which are described as Atanr (Pashto word for a family of identical folk dances). Except for the Khattak dance, all the other Pakhtoon folk dances or Atanr start with a slow tempo and get fast as the momentum picks up with a corresponding faster beat. Khattak dance a special type of music is composed the main instrument for it is the piper clarion. Large drums beaten with sticks. The Khattak dance has three kinds of cultural dances.
They are called Shahdola, Bhangrha, and Bulbullah.
Another important dissimilarity between the Khattak dance and other folk dances is the absence of Sanrry (oily hair grown up to a specific length), which the Khattak dancers don't have. The dance comprises a total of 12 steps requiring the dancers to have the best of skills to perform. At one moment they would be performing individually and in a fraction of seconds they would align their body movements with the rest of the troupe members - whose number may be as high as 40.
In the Bhangrah every member swirls while carrying swords as the prop. The Bhangrah is followed by Derabi. At this stage, two youths at a time, carrying one sword and a handkerchief each in their hands, start dancing in front of the man with surnai while the rest of the troupe members wait for their turn. In the Laila, the third step, a group of four performers holding two swords each, perform stunts moving in a circle.
Braghoni is the fastest and the most adventurous of all steps, which a single dancer performs with three swords. He very skillfully swings two swords in the air while holding the third in his mouth.
Bulbullah, the last of the twelve steps, is staged without swords. The dancers sing a love song at a high pitch. At the end of the song, the drumbeat increases slightly and the dance goes on.
A unique dance routine using rifles performed by the Mahsud tribe of Pukhtoon. Originally it was used to dance at the time of war, but later on became a cultural dance. The dancers dance empty handed and require only large drums. Nowadays though it is danced with the guns in the dancers hand; loaded guns are taken in one hand, up to the beat of the drum the dancers move forward in a circle. After taking two and half steps each dancer turn about, and make the gun and is caught with the other hand. All the dancers do this in a uniform manner and by completing the turning steps they fire in the air simultaneously. The sound of each of the guns goes on one time and seems to be single big bang.
Waziristan is a large area and has particular Pkhhtun culture. Two drummers and a flute player play a particular tune. All the Wazirs standing around them. Two persons leave the circle; go dancing towards the drummers, and come back dancing in the same manner. During performing both the persons turn around two times at a time once towards each other facing face to face and once keeping faces in opposite direction. After doing this separately they march while dancing to the assembled crowd. As they reach the circle another pair of the performers start and moving forward in the same fashion.
Shah Dolla is the name of the dance specified for the Pukhtoon tribe of Yusufzai. It is purely a dance for happiness and merriment, often danced at some happy occasion. It is too danced in a circle around the drummers. According to the beats of the drum the dancer move forward in a circle. With the first beat they open the hands and bring one foot back, with the succeeding beat both the hands are brought together, so is the back foot. With the third beat of the drum the hands clapped and head bowed to the inner side of the circle. The clapping of hands and putting the foot back are done together, so that to make a tune with the sound of the clapping and drum beat. It is too an artistic dance and requires complete timing of the clapping.
Nowadays the tradition of dancing by the Taleban has reduced to a considerable extent. The religious students studying in the religious schools perform a dance which they called the Atanrh of the Taleban. Those Taleban who lived in the boarding houses in religious schools used to have this dance for entertainment, before going to bed. With rhythmic clapping of hands they used to dance together disorderly or in order. This was just like exercise but had rhythm in it specially the clapping of hands and foot work.
Logaray is a very artistic dance one person or two or more can dance together to the tune of orchestra. Actually Logaray is the name of the area in Afghanistan where this special tune is played by a large traditional orchestra. Boys or girls dance to this tune. It is a beautiful dance because so many variations occur in it in the drum beat. The moment the drum and other instrument are given a pause the dancer sits, by starting again slowly. The dancer slowly rises from the ground and again starts dancing with the tune. Sometime abruptly sitting and abruptly starting of the tune gives appears attractively. Besides the drum beat the harmonium is also used to provide tune to the dancing.
The dance of the Logar Valley is renowned throughout the Pukhtoon lands. It is famous for its shy yet coquette nature in which the dancers freeze suddenly during the dramatic stops in the music. The main musical instruments are the stringed Rabab and the ceramic chalice drum Zerbaghalai. The rhythm is sometimes accentuated by bells on the ankles of the dancers.
Marwat too is a large tribe of the Pukhtoons. They have a particular cultural dance of their own, very much resembling the Wazir dance but can be dance for played one by one and by a large number of participants in a circle. The participants grow their hair long enough so that they can be tossed from side to side while they are turning their heads around in violent jerks. This is also done by the Wazir and the Mahsud tribes.
The Bhittani Tribe's dance is truly a sight to see due to the colorful jackets with gold embroidery and the white clothes that the dancers wear. The Shirt is a long gown which is like a swirling top when the dancer turns around and around. In his hands, the dancers will hold red, green or blue clothes. Bhittani Tribesmen dance in round circles with elegant footwork combined with colorful wavering of their large colorful clothes.
Balbala is a Pukhtoon cultural dance and common every where but is mostly played and danced in southern tribes. Drummers and flute players in the center play a particular tune and the persons go dancing around them. In the start it is slow but gets moment fast with the drum beat. They whirl and move fast in the circle. It is a cultural dance and performed by the youth on some happy occasions. Apart from these dances, which are called Atanrh, other cultural dances are also performed by the professional or non-professional dancers. One or two professional female dancers dance on different occasions. The times for different dances are specified.
Speen Takray is a dance performed by a single professional female dancer. In this dance, a special tune of orchestra is played on. This is a saz particular for Pushto cultural folk songs. The dancer wraps with shawl and hides the face and head. Then she dances like a newly wedded bride.